JCCC Honors Journal

Article Title

The Land's Liver


Economic progress seems to consistently come with a steep price tag. The Industrial Revolution was birthed in the 1800’s, and as a result manufacturing, mining, transport, as well as other industries within our system systematically tainted viable water sources, contaminated soil, and increased greenhouse gases that include, but are not limited to, carbon dioxide and methane. By 1889 the first sewage treatment plant was installed at Washington D.C., but there were still a very small number of laws that were enacted in order to regulate the mounting amount of industrial waste. Not until 1970, almost 20 years after the fiery vision of the Cuyahoga River, did President Richard Nixon issue forth a mandate for change. In July of the same year, with Congress and the White House working collectively, the Environmental Protection Agency was formed in response to the public demand for an increase in quality standards that included the life sustaining elements; water, air, and land. On December 2nd of the same year, the Environmental Protection Agency opened its doors to fulfill its contract with America (EPA).

This paper fulfilled C. Turner's Honor Contract for Honors Botany. Her faculty supervisor was Professor Steven Giambrone.